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Cappadocia

During the Roman period, Ephesus was for many years one of the largest cities of the Roman Empire, ranking second only behind Rome. It had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it the second largest city in the world.
 
Ephesus is known worldwide for being the location of the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and destroyed in 401 AD. According to Pausanias, a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, this Temple was the largest building in the ancient world. Today, barely a trace remains aside from one inconspicuous column.
 
Ephesus is as important a site for Christians as it is for Muslims. Ephesus was one of the ‘Seven Churches of Asia’ (referring to the communities of Christians and not to the church buildings themselves, that are cited in the Book of Revelations. It is also said that the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils, and is also the site of a large gladiators' graveyard. 

Ephesus

During the Roman period, Ephesus was for many years one of the largest cities of the Roman Empire, ranking second only behind Rome. It had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it the second largest city in the world.

Ephesus is known worldwide for being the location of the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and destroyed in 401 AD. According to Pausanias, a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, it was the largest building in the ancient world. Today, barely a trace remains aside from one inconspicuous column.

Ephesus is as important a site for Christians as it is for Muslims. Ephesus was one of the ‘Seven Churches of Asia’ (referring to the communities of Christians and not to the church buildings themselves, all in modern-day Turkey) that are cited in the Book of Revelations and it is said that the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils and is also the site of a large gladiators' graveyard. 

Pamukkale

Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in southwestern Turkey. The city contains hot springs and travertines which are terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. 
 
Tourism is a major industry here. People have bathed in the pools of Pamukkale for thousands of years, and as recently as the mid-20th century hotels were built over the ruins of Heropolis, causing considerable damage. When Hierapolis-Pamukkale was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools.  
 
The 17 hot springs in the area vary from 35C (100F) to 100C (212F) and are renowned for their healing properties due to the mineral deposits within them. They have been recommended for the treatment of high blood pressure, rheumatism, circulatory problems and nutritional disorders.

Pergamum

Pergamum, or Pergamon (from the Greek for ‘citadel’), is an ancient Greek city in modern-day Turkey. Built on a conical hill rising 1,000 feet above the surrounding valley, Pergamum’s modern successor is the Turkish city of Bergama which is home to two of the country's most celebrated archaeological sites. Pergamum's acropolis and Asklepion are both listed among the top 100 historical sites on the Mediterranean.

Most of the buildings and monuments in Pergamum date to the time of Eumenes II (197-159 BC), including the famed library, the terrace of the hillside theatre, the main palace, the Altar of Zeus, and the propylaeum of the Temple of Athena. In the early Christian era, Pergamum's church was a major centre of Christianity.
 
The ancient city is composed of three main parts: the Acropolis, whose main function was social and cultural as much as it was sacred; the Lower City, which was the realm of the lower classes; and the Asklepion – one of the earliest medical centres on record.

Troy

Troy was a factual and legendary city, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida. It is best known for being the focus of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer.

Ilus, the son of Tros founded Troy in 3000 BC and the name Troy was derived from his name. The long history of Troy is variously described as a wealthy trade city affected by sporadic tragic episodes, natural disasters, fires, massacres and wars, only to be resurrected each time. For many years, people believed that it was a city of legend and never actually existed.
 
In 1863, British explorer Frank Calvert discovered the ancient ruins at a place in western Turkey called Hisarlik and he was convinced they were the ruins of Troy. Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist arrived in 1868 and he provided the funding for more digs. He then took credit for discovering Troy.
 
The site of Troy that is mostly visible was excavated by Schliemann. Archaeological digs since the ones done by Schliemann and his team have revealed nine cities with various ruins of city walls, typical house foundations, a temple and theatre. After nine cities were unearthed, they were subdivided into 46 strata and a symbolic wooden Trojan horse stands on the site to commemorate the Trojan War, waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad and the Odyssey.
 
Troy is known as one of the centres of ancient civilization and as such, Troy was selected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998.